Schaffhausen is a town in northern Switzerland and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 34,587 as of December 2008.
Schaffhausen was a city state in the Middle Ages, documented to have struck its own coins from 1045. About 1050 the counts of Nellenburg founded the Benedictine monastery of All Saints, which became the centre of the town. Perhaps as early as 1190, certainly in 1208, it was an imperial free city, while the first seal dates from 1253. The powers of the abbot were gradually limited and in 1277 the Emperor Rudolf I gave the town a charter of liberties. In 1330 the emperor Louis of Bavaria pledged it to the Habsburgs. In the early 15th century, Habsburg power over the city waned. By 1411 the guilds ruled the city. Then, in 1415 the Habsburg Duke Frederick IV of Austria sided with the Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, and was banned by the Emperor Sigismund. As a result of the ban and Frederick's need of money, Schaffhausen was able to buy its independence from the Habsburgs in 1418. The city allied with six of the Swiss confederates in 1454 and allied with a further two (Uri and Unterwalden) in 1479. Schaffhausen became a full member of the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1501.
The Swiss Bank Program, which was announced on Aug. 29, 2013, provides a path for Swiss banks to resolve potential criminal liabilities in the United States. Swiss banks eligible to enter the program were required to advise the department by Dec. 31, 2013, that they had reason to believe that they had committed tax-related criminal offenses in connection with undeclared U.S.-related accounts. Banks already under criminal investigation related to their Swiss-banking activities and all individuals were expressly excluded from the program.
From 2004 through 2011, EKS accepted referrals of U.S. persons as new clients from an external asset manager who, until 2009, resided in the United States and conducted some of his business through a corporation organized under the laws of the United States. The majority of the accounts that came to EKS as a result of these referrals were held in the names of non-U.S. entities that were beneficially owned by U.S. persons.
We are interested in the cellular signal transduction regulating cell growth and survival. Most of our work starts from questions raised by murine polyomavirus, a small DNA tumor virus. Polyomaviruses subvert host cell mechanisms for their replication and transcription. Murine polyoma causes neoplastic transformation and a broad range of tumors in its host. Studies on polyoma have identified such key general mechanisms of cell regulation as tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. We work both to identify new pathways that contribute to tumorigenesis and to understand the mechanisms for those we have already identified. Murine polyomavirus transformation is based on actions of three viral oncogenes: large T (LT), middle T (MT) and small T (ST) antigens. As depicted below, these three proteins work in different cell compartments. However, each T antigen is capable by itself of regulating both cell cycle progression and cell survival.
The judgement in question contained a detailed preamble on the extent of the obligation to examine goods and give notice to the seller of any non-conformity, in accordance with articles 38 and 39 CISG. The case, which was brought before the competent court in conformity with article 17 of the Lugano Convention, concerned the sale, by the defendant domiciled in Germany, of scale model locomotives to a buyer whose place of business was in the canton of Schaffhausen. At the time of delivery of a sample model and, subsequently, of a prototype prior to mass production, the buyer had reported significant defects and, in the opinion of the court, was not only justified in undertaking an in-depth examination of the goods upon delivery but also had an obligation to do so (to report defects). Taking into account the considerable time necessary for such an examination (from 75 to 150 hours), the court considered that notification of the defects within three weeks of receipt of the goods had taken place in a timely manner.
In the Commentary volume, the Introduction (2.13-16) by Damian Bracken briefly characterizes the significance of the Life and of this copy by the scribe Dorbb?ne, almost certainly the Dorbb?ne (d. 713) who succeeded Adomn?n in the "primacy" of Iona, just as Adomn?n (d. 704) had been a successor of Columba. The Life itself (in Dorbb?ne's copy) quotes from a lost Liber de virtutibus sancti Columbae by the seventh abbot of Iona, Cumm?ne Find (d. 669). One might add that this chain of composition and copying by successive abbots who were, in addition, all descendants of Niall Nogiallach (a genealogy of the Cen?l Conaill is provided at 2.19) asserts the genealogical and material continuity of spiritual authority deriving from the founder of the monastic familia.