Bellinzona (Italian pronunciation: [bellin?tso?na]; French: Bellinzone [b?l??zon], German: Bellenz [?b?l?nts], Romansh: Blizuna [bli?tsu?n?] ( listen)) is the capital of the canton Ticino in Switzerland. The city is famous for its three castles (Castelgrande, Montebello, Sasso Corbaro) that have been UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 2000.
The town lies east of the Ticino river, at the foot of the Alps. It stretches along the river valley, surrounded by the southern ranges of the Lepontine Alps to the east and west, and by the Lugano Prealps to the south.
The toponym is first attested in 590 in Latin as Belitio or Bilitio (in the accusative, Bilitionem), by Gregory of Tours. The name is Lepontic in origin, possibly from belitio ("juniper") or belitione ("juniper bushes").
During the medieval period, the name is found as Berinzona (721, 762, 803, 1002), Birrinzona (1004), Birizona (1168), Beliciona (901, 977) and Belinzona (1055). The German name of the town is Bellenz. A local folk etymology derives the name Bellinzona from zona bellica "war zone", making a connection to the Italian Wars.
The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is an erect serpent in silver on a red field. The fabulous animal is called in Italian "Biscione". This animal, which can also be found on the arms of the Alfa Romeo car company, is linked with the Visconti family, who were feudal lords of Bellinzona in the 14th and 15th centuries.
Bellinzona is a city in Switzerland famous for it’s three castles. It’s location at the foot of the Alps made it a strategic point for fortification since the Roman Empire. This photograph shows a street scene in Bellinzona during the late 1960s.
The mosaics of the eastern arch of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople were known only from drawings and watercolors until 1989, when two of these images—the Virgin and St. John the Baptist—were uncovered by conservators working for the Istanbul Archaeological Museum. The images confirm the accuracy of the nineteenth-century drawings by the Fossati brothers, who had covered them with plaster. The eastern arch mosaic program was planned during the reigns of the Byzantine patriarch Philotheos Kokkinos (1353–54, 1364–76) and the emperors John VI Kantakouzenos (1347–54) and John V Palaiologos (1341–91) by a circle of intellectuals who were well aware of new trends in both theology and art. This article—the first publication of these mosaics—addresses how liturgical changes at Hagia Sophia, including the introduction of a new monastic-oriented typikon and the establishment of a Royal Office, affected the program of the eastern arch. Especially noteworthy is the depiction of the emperor below the Virgin of the Magnificat. Representing the emperor as part of the Royal Office in such a prominent location reinforced his political and symbolic role, underscoring imperial authority and dynastic legitimacy sanctioned by Christ. The figure of John Prodromos pointing toward the hetoimasia refers to Christ and his Second Coming, which guarantees worshippers eternal salvation. This message was especially important during the political instability and economic devastation of the late Byzantine Empire.
The Hospitality and Tourism Management Study Abroad Program combines large and small group travel and an in-class teaching program over a 29-day period, to create a unique and rewarding experience. This highly popular program will be delivered for the tenth time during summer 2016. Prior to departure, students must attend 4-6 contact hours on campus at Virginia Tech. Upon arrival, five days of in-class teaching will be held at the Virginia Tech facility, Villa Maderni—a vintage 1800’s villa, located in Riva San Vitale, Switzerland (see cover photo). In-class material will be complemented with 23 days of travel in three countries: Switzerland, Italy and Austria. The entire group will visit Zurich, Luzerne, Lugano, and Bellinzona, Switzerland; Como, Venice, Milan, Florence, Sienna, and Bolzano, Italy; and, Innsbruck, Salzburg, and Vienna, Austria. A well-liked component of this program is the independent small group, 4 day/3 nights “Cultural Immersion Trip” to selected cities such as Rome, Italy; Paris, France; Amsterdam, Netherlands; Prague, Czech Republic; Munich, Germany; Barcelona, Spain or Athens, Greece.
An authoritative work interspersed with nearly one hundred of John Ruskin’s Swiss drawings recounts his lifelong interest in Switzerland. Hayman provides a chronological account of Ruskin’s visits to Switzerland from his earliest travels in 1833 and 1835 and his frequent tours of the 1840s to the final visits in the 1880s. Of particular concern is Ruskin’s intention between approximately 1855 and 1865 to engrave his own drawings of Swiss towns for a work illustrative of Swiss history. Drawings of the historic Swiss towns in which Ruskin was most interested — Baden, Bellinzona, Brugg, Fribourg, Geneva, Laufenburg, Lucerne.
OTX015 showed antiproliferative activity in a large panel of cell lines derived from mature B-cell lymphoid tumors with median IC50 of 240 nmol/L, without significant differences among the different histotypes. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that OTX015 targeted NFKB/TLR/JAK/STAT signaling pathways, MYC- and E2F1-regulated genes, cell-cycle regulation, and chromatin structure. OTX015 presented in vitro synergism with several anticancer agents, especially with mTOR and BTK inhibitors. Gene expression signatures associated with different degrees of sensitivity to OTX015 were identified. Although OTX015 was mostly cytostatic, the compound induced apoptosis in a genetically defined subgroup of cells, derived from activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, bearing wtTP53, mutations in MYD88, and CD79B or CARD11.
Switzerland is primarily a destination and, to a lesser extent, a transit country for women and children subjected to sex trafficking and children forced into begging and theft. Sex trafficking victims originate primarily from Central and Eastern Europe (Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Romania, Ukraine, Moldova, and Albania), though victims also come from Latin America (Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Colombia), Asia (Thailand and Cambodia), and Africa (Nigeria and Cameroon). During the last year, Swiss government officials and NGOs reported an increase in the number of children forced into begging and shoplifting from other parts of Europe, especially Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria, many of whom were ethnic Roma. Federal police assessed that the total number of potential trafficking victims residing in Switzerland was between 2,000 and 3,000. Swiss authorities identified larger numbers of Turkish and Macedonian criminal groups also engaged in human trafficking, often in coordination with drug trafficking activities. Federal police noted victims were increasingly housed in rented apartments in smaller, industrialized villages outside of large cities. There reportedly was forced labor in the domestic service sector, particularly in foreign diplomatic households in Geneva, and increasingly in agriculture, construction, hotels, and restaurants. According to Swiss authorities, female and underage asylum seekers were especially vulnerable to sex trafficking.